The S4 Trainer helps understanding that a signal is a function that conveys information about a phenomenon. In electronics and telecommunications, it refers to any time varying voltage, current, or electromagnetic wave that carries information. A signal may also be defined as an observable change in a quality such as quantity.


The S4 Trainer focuses on the practice or science of collecting and analyzing numerical data.Another area of focus is stochastic or random processes. Some specialprobabilistic distributions are also discussed including the commonly used Bivariate Gaussian Distribution.Then we use this knowledge of probability theory and systems to estimate parameters.


The S4 Trainer helps visualize the ideaof spaces, and helps in understanding that spaces consist of selected mathematical objects that are treated as points, and selected relationships between these points. The nature of the points can vary widely: for example, the points can be elements of a set, functions on another space, or subspaces of another space. It is the relationships that define the nature of the space.


We use this trainer to describe the behavior of complex dynamical systems, usually by employing differential equations or difference equations. We start by providing the foundation for modeling, analysis, and control of dynamical systems.